Cancers have a strong influence on the quality and duration of life. The prevalence and incidence of neoplasms are increasing throughout the world, and there is also an unfavorable tendency to rejuvenate many forms of pathology. The structure of cancer incidence in developing and developed countries vary, there are also variations depending on age, gender, and geographic location.
Structure of oncological morbidity in the world
According to statistics, the structure of oncological diseases in developed countries among men is represented by the following forms of pathology:
- Tumors of the prostate – 20.6%;
- Tumors of the lung – 15.8%;
- Intestinal tumors – 10.7%.
In women, according to statistics, such forms of tumors predominate as:
- Breast tumor – 29.4%;
- Intestinal tumors – 10.7%;
- Tumors of the lung – 8.2%.
The structure of cancer among the male population of developing countries consists of:
- Tumors of the lung – 17.3%;
- Tumors of the stomach – 13.2%;
- Liver tumors – 11.8%.
Among the female population prevails:
- Breast tumors – 19.7%;
- Tumors of the cervix uteri – 12.9%;
- Tumors of the lung – 8%;
- Stomach tumors – 7.2%.
It should be noted that the age period has a strong influence on the structure of oncological diseases. For example, according to statistics, men 15-39 years old are susceptible to the formation of lymphoma (17%), testicular neoplasms (10%) and the central nervous system (8%); among the older people, the prostate tumor is the leader.
Structure of cancer incidence in Russia
According to statistics, in Russia in 2014 there were about 556,000 new cases of malignant tumors, which is 21% more than in 2004. At the same time, at the end of the year, more than 3,291,000 patients were registered in specialized institutions. In 88% of cases, the form of pathology was confirmed morphologically, it is also worth noting that the share of stage 1 tumors accounted for 26.7%, stage 2 – 25.3%, stage 3 – 20.6%, stage 4 – 20.7%.
In the structure of oncological morbidity in Russia, among the male population, such forms of pathology predominate as:
- Tumors of the lung – 19.8%;
- Tumors of the prostate – 14.7%;
- Skin tumors – 11.5%;
- Tumors of the stomach – 9.8%;
- Intestinal tumors – 6.1%.
A special role is played by malignant neoplasms of the urogenital system, occupying a 24.2% share in the structure of oncological diseases.
Among the female population of Russia, the structure is as follows:
- Breast tumors – 20.1%;
- Skin tumors -13.7%;
- Intestinal tumors – 13.7%;
- Tumors of the uterus – 7.3%;
- Tumors of the lung – 3.7%.
According to statistics, in the structure of cancer incidence in women, a large role is played by the neoplasms of the reproductive system, registering with a frequency of 39.4%.
The maximum incidence rates occur at the age of 60-64 years (16.2%). Differences in the age-sex structure are observed after 30 years.
Structure of oncological diseases in age groups:
- 0-30 years – hemoblastosis (31.8%), neoplasms of the central nervous system (10.7%), thyroid gland (7%), cervix (6.7%), skin (5.8%) are most common ;
- 30-59 years old – a large proportion of tumors are breast (15.7%), lung (9.7%), skin (9.8%), cervix (6%), stomach (5.5%), hemoblastosis ( 5%), intestines (4.6%);
- 60 and older are dominated by tumors of the skin (16.75), lung (10.7%), breast (9.8%), intestine (7.7%), stomach (7.4%).
Lung cancer – a leading position in the structure of cancer incidence
For many years, lung cancer throughout the world has taken first place in the structure of oncological morbidity and mortality. Every year, more than 1,600,000 new cases of pathology are recorded in the world, and approximately 1,300,000 die in this case. According to specialists, the figures in 2020 will worsen by about 2 times. In developed countries, the incidence of lung cancer was 47.4: 100,000 men and 27.8: 100,000 women, in developing 18.6 and 11, respectively. According to statistics, in the US, the incidence reaches 62: 100,000, while this form of oncology is the cause of death from malignant neoplasms in 30% of cases.
In Russia, the incidence of lung cancer is one of the highest in the world, the prevalence rate is 86.7: 100,000. It is worth noting that the disease is often diagnosed in an advanced form (38.3%), only 26.4% were detected at early stages cases. This explains the high mortality rates in the first year of life after the diagnosis – 52.4%.
Breast cancer in the structure of oncological diseases
Breast cancer is a common pathology in most countries of the world, the incidence rate in developed countries is 66.4 per 100,000, in developing countries – 27.3. According to US statistics, every 8 women will get breast cancer. In America, this form of pathology plays an important role in the structure of oncological diseases, the incidence rate is 39.3 per 100,000. It is worth noting that about 500,000 women die from breast cancer every year, which is 15% in the structure of mortality from oncopathology.