Changes in tissues constantly occur in the human body, which can be physiological and pathological. It is very important to identify early symptoms of cancer in time, which is a key criterion for early diagnosis and complete cure of the patient. In oncology, there are 15 reliable signs of cancer of the organs that every person must know.
1. Pathology of the thoracic region
Oncological vigilance is caused by such changes in the breast area:
- dryness and inflammation of the skin;
- sucking and sore nipple;
- purulent, blood or clear discharge from the ducts of the gland;
- redness and peeling of the epithelium around the nipple.
After detecting early signs of breast cancer, the patient should be examined by an oncologist who prescribes mammography and a biopsy for diagnosis.
2. Chronic abdominal distension
This symptom, in conjunction with blood secretions, may signal a malignant neoplasm of the intestine or ovaries.
3. The presence of vaginal bleeding
Uterine cancer, the symptoms in the early stages of which occur between menstrual cycles, requires immediate consultation with a gynecologist.
4. Changes in the skin
This symptom includes an increase in the size of the mole or its pigmentation. Modification of a nevus may indicate a melanoma, which is a malignant tumor, metastatic already at the initial stage of the disease. In cancer of the epithelium, skin tightening, bleeding ulcers, and erosion can also be observed.
5. Blood in urine and stool
Blood masses in the feces indicate hemorrhoids or cancer of the colon. Urine with blood can be considered an early manifestation of oncology of the bladder or kidneys.
6. Swollen lymph nodes
Sealing of lymph nodes is often a consequence of the spread of cancer cells through the lymphatic system. Such early cancer symptoms, depending on the type of cancer, can be located in the axillary, inguinal or cervical region. Establishing an oncological diagnosis in such a case requires a comprehensive examination of the patient using X-ray, ultrasound, computed and magnetic resonance imaging.
7. Problems with swallowing food.
Complete or partial obstruction of the esophagus indicates carcinoma (malignant neoplasm of the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal). In addition, patients may complain of pain during swallowing or sensation of an external body in the larynx area. During diagnosis, the doctor usually prescribes contrast radiography, which reveals the size and shape of the cancer focus. Confirmation of the diagnosis is carried out on the basis of biopsy data taken during endoscopic examination.
8. Unreasonable weight loss
Sharp weight loss of more than ten kilograms raises concerns about cancer of the digestive system, pancreas, lungs or bones. Determining the causes of such changes in body weight requires analysis for tumor markers, radiography, and topographic studies.
9. Chronic heartburn
Patients with high acidity, which lasts more than two weeks, are subject to gastroenterological examination. This is due to the fact that gastritis, peptic ulcer and a malignant tumor of the stomach cause chronic heartburn. If gastric discomfort occurs, it is recommended that patients change their daily diet. If heartburn is persistent, then the patient should seek specialized help.
Modern patients are increasingly choosing the format of a video consultation in order to receive recommendations from the most famous doctors, regardless of geolocation.
10. Changes in the oral mucosa
Dentists point out the need to undergo annual preventive examinations of the oral cavity. At the reception, the dentist pays special attention to precancerous conditions in the form of leukoplakia and hyperkeratosis. A particular risk of cancer of the oral cavity is tobacco smokers and people with poor dental hygiene.
Chronic low-grade fever, which lasts more than two weeks, is an early sign of leukemia or another type of blood cancer. Diagnosis of this disease includes a general and complete blood count.
12. Chronic fatigue
General weakness and fast fatigue may indicate a chronic disease of the cardiovascular system, vegetative-vascular dystonia or cancer. Therefore, to establish the diagnosis, the patient must undergo a comprehensive examination.
Chronic cough, which does not disappear within 3-4 weeks, requires an additional diagnosis of the respiratory system. Oncological vigilance is caused by intermittent dry cough in smokers, especially in combination with progressive shortness of breath. This symptom is often the first sign of lung cancer. The presence of pulmonary carcinoma is also indicated by the presence of blood in the sputum after a coughing fit. The final diagnosis is made on the basis of X-ray and puncture biopsy.
14. Pain syndrome
Pain that periodically bothers the patient can signal the presence of a malignant neoplasm. Cancer pain is associated with locally disruptive tumor growth. In the initial stages, the oncological pains can be relieved with the help of traditional painkillers. In the later stages, if cancer hurts, the cancer patient is required to take narcotic analeptics.
15. Nervous system disorders
Neurosis and depression, as a rule, accompany oncological diseases. Early symptoms of central and peripheral nervous system cancer include apathy and depressive states. These symptoms can not clearly indicate oncology and require additional diagnostics.